Tax Implications of Split-Dollar Life Insurance Plans


Split-dollar life insurance, a unique arrangement between two parties, often an employer and an employee or between family members, offers significant benefits and complex tax considerations. In this structure, the cost of life insurance premiums and the benefits are split between the two parties based on a mutually agreed-upon formula. While split-dollar life insurance plans can be effective in estate planning, executive compensation, and business succession strategies, understanding their tax implications is critical for anyone considering this option.

Understanding Split-Dollar Plans

Split Dollar Plans are primarily categorized into endorsement split-dollar arrangements and collateral assignment split-dollar arrangements. Each type has distinct tax treatments and implications. In an endorsement split-dollar arrangement, the policy owner endorses a portion of the life insurance to the benefit of another party. In contrast, in a collateral assignment arrangement, the life insurance policy is assigned as collateral for a loan.

The Tax Landscape of Split-Dollar Life Insurance

Income Tax Considerations

A split-dollar life insurance plan’s most immediate tax implication revolves around treating premium payments and death benefits. In both arrangements, the tax consequences depend on who owns the policy, who pays the premiums, and how the policy’s benefits are divided.

In an endorsement split-dollar plan, the IRS may treat the premium payments made by the employer on behalf of the employee as taxable income to the employee. This is typically calculated as the economic benefit that the employee receives, which is often less than the actual premium paid.

For collateral assignment arrangements, the situation can be more complex. Employees who make the premium payments may not see any immediate income tax benefit. However, if the employer pays the premiums, these payments might be considered a loan to the employee, with imputed interest income that could be taxable.

Gift and Estate Tax Implications

In estate planning, split-dollar life insurance plans can have significant gift and estate tax implications. If the arrangement is between family members, the premium payments by one party could be considered a gift to the other, potentially subjecting the payer to gift taxes. This is particularly pertinent when one party pays the premiums while the other enjoys the policy’s benefits. The IRS requires these transactions to be treated as gifts and may require filing a gift tax return. The gift amount is typically calculated using the IRS’s premium table rates, not the actual premiums paid, which can sometimes result in unexpected tax liabilities.

Regarding estate taxes, including the death benefit from a life insurance policy in a split-dollar arrangement in the insured’s taxable estate is a critical consideration. This is particularly true if the insured retains any incidents of ownership in the policy, such as the ability to change beneficiaries or borrow against the policy. Such control can lead to the entire death benefit being included in the estate, potentially increasing estate tax liability. However, careful planning and structuring of the policy can mitigate these effects. For example, placing the policy in an irrevocable life insurance trust (ILIT) can help ensure that the death benefit is not included in the estate, thus avoiding the estate tax.

Business Applications and Tax Implications

For businesses, especially in the context of executive compensation or buy-sell agreements, split-dollar life insurance plans can offer tax-efficient ways to provide benefits. The tax implications for the business and the executive can vary based on the arrangement’s structure. Generally, businesses seek to structure these plans so premiums are not tax-deductible, aiming to benefit from the tax-free death benefit. This approach can be particularly advantageous in executive compensation, where the business can recover costs upon the executive’s death without the proceeds being subject to corporate income tax.

However, the tax treatment of these arrangements for the executive can be complex. The IRS views the economic benefit provided to the executive as a form of compensation, which can be taxable. This means that executives may need to report a portion of the policy’s value as income each year, which can affect their overall tax liability. Additionally, if the policy includes a cash value component, there could be further tax implications for the executive, especially if they access these funds during their lifetime.

The implications for businesses using split-dollar arrangements in buy-sell agreements can be different. If structured correctly, these agreements can provide a tax-efficient method to fund the buyout of a deceased partner’s interest in the business. The death benefit proceeds are generally tax-free by the business and can be used to purchase the deceased partner’s share from their estate. This can be a vital tool in ensuring business continuity and providing liquidity for estate taxes without liquidating business assets.

In both cases, businesses need to work closely with tax professionals to ensure compliance with IRS regulations and to structure these arrangements in the most tax-efficient manner possible. This includes adhering to the applicable IRS tables for determining the economic benefit to the executive and ensuring proper documentation and reporting of the arrangement.

Compliance and Reporting Requirements

Navigating the IRS requirements is crucial for maintaining the tax advantages of split-dollar life insurance plans. It’s essential to adhere to IRS regulations, including filing any required gift tax returns and adhering to applicable interest rate rules for imputed loans under collateral assignment arrangements.


Split-dollar life insurance plans are a powerful tool in strategic financial planning, offering benefits like cost-sharing and potential tax advantages. However, their complexity, especially regarding tax implications, must be considered. Whether for personal estate planning, business succession, or executive compensation, consulting with financial and tax professionals is imperative to navigate these waters effectively. Understanding and properly structuring a split-dollar arrangement can maximize its benefits while minimizing potential tax liabilities.

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